1. Guessing Game
  2. Common Programming Concepts
    1. Variables and Mutability
    2. Data Types
    3. Function
    4. Control Flow
  3. Understanding Ownership
    1. References and Borrowing
    2. The Slice Type
  4. Using Structs
    1. An Example Program Using Structs
    2. Method Syntax
  5. Enums and Pattern Matching
    1. The match Control Flow Operator
    2. Concise Control Flow with if let
  6. Managing Growing Projects with Packages, Crates, and Modules
    1. Defining Modules to Control Scope and Privacy
    2. Paths for Referring to an Item in the Module Tree
    3. Bringing Paths into Scope with the use Keyword
    4. Separating Modules into Different Files
  7. Common Collections
    1. Storing UTF-8 Encoded Text with Strings
    2. Storing Keys with Associated Values in Hash Maps
  8. Error Handling
    1. Unrecoverable Errors with panic!
    2. Recoverable Errors with Result
  9. Generic Types, Traits, and Lifetimes
    1. Traits: Defining Shared Behavior
    2. Generics Rust by Example
      1. Functions
      2. Implementation
  10. Writing Automated Tests
  11. Object Oriented Programming
  12. Adding dependancies
  13. Option Take
  14. RefCell
  15. mem
  16. Data Structure
    1. Linked List
    2. Binary search tree
    3. N-ary Sum tree
  17. Recipe
    1. Semi colon
    2. Calling rust from python
    3. Default
    4. Crytocurrency With rust
    5. Function chaining
    6. Question Mark Operator
    7. Tests with println
    8. lib and bin
    9. Append vector to hash map
    10. Random Number
    11. uuid4
    12. uwrap and option
  18. Blockchain with Rust
  19. Near Protocol
    1. Startup code
    2. Couter
    3. Status
    4. Avrit
  20. Actix-web

The Slice Type

The Slice Type

Another data type that does not have ownership is the slice. Slices let you reference a contiguous sequence of elements in a collection rather than the whole collection.

Inside the for loop, we search for the byte that represents the space by using the byte literal syntax. If we find a space, we return the position. Otherwise, we return the length of the string by using s.len()
fn first_word(s: &String) -> usize {
    let bytes = s.as_bytes();

    for (i, &item) in bytes.iter().enumerate() {
        if item == b' ' {
            return i;


String Slices
A string slice is a reference to part of a String, and it looks like this:
    let s = String::from("hello world");

    let hello = &s[0..5];
    let world = &s[6..11];

This is similar to taking a reference to the whole String but with the extra [0..5] bit. Rather than a reference to the entire String, it’s a reference to a portion of the String.

We can create slices using a range within brackets by specifying [starting_index..ending_index], where starting_index is the first position in the slice and ending_index is one more than the last position in the slice.


With Rust’s .. range syntax, if you want to start at the first index (zero), you can drop the value before the two periods. In other words, these are equal:

let s = String::from("hello");

let slice = &s[0..2];
let slice = &s[..2];

By the same token, if your slice includes the last byte of the String, you can drop the trailing number. That means these are equal:
let s = String::from("hello");

let len = s.len();

let slice = &s[3..len];
let slice = &s[3..];

You can also drop both values to take a slice of the entire string. So these are equal:
let s = String::from("hello");

let len = s.len();

let slice = &s[0..len];
let slice = &s[..];

String Literals Are Slices

Recall that we talked about string literals being stored inside the binary. Now that we know about slices, we can properly understand string literals:
let s = "Hello, world!";

The type of s here is &str: it’s a slice pointing to that specific point of the binary. This is also why string literals are immutable; &str is an immutable reference.

fn main() {
    let my_string = String::from("hello world");

    // first_word works on slices of `String`s
    let word = first_word(&my_string[..]);

    let my_string_literal = "hello world";

    // first_word works on slices of string literals
    let word = first_word(&my_string_literal[..]);

    // Because string literals *are* string slices already,
    // this works too, without the slice syntax!
    let word = first_word(my_string_literal);

Other Slices
let a = [12345];

let a = [12345];

let slice = &a[1..3];