1. Guessing Game
  2. Common Programming Concepts
    1. Variables and Mutability
    2. Data Types
    3. Function
    4. Control Flow
  3. Understanding Ownership
    1. References and Borrowing
    2. The Slice Type
  4. Using Structs
    1. An Example Program Using Structs
    2. Method Syntax
  5. Enums and Pattern Matching
    1. The match Control Flow Operator
    2. Concise Control Flow with if let
  6. Managing Growing Projects with Packages, Crates, and Modules
    1. Defining Modules to Control Scope and Privacy
    2. Paths for Referring to an Item in the Module Tree
    3. Bringing Paths into Scope with the use Keyword
    4. Separating Modules into Different Files
  7. Common Collections
    1. Storing UTF-8 Encoded Text with Strings
    2. Storing Keys with Associated Values in Hash Maps
  8. Error Handling
    1. Unrecoverable Errors with panic!
    2. Recoverable Errors with Result
  9. Generic Types, Traits, and Lifetimes
    1. Traits: Defining Shared Behavior
    2. Generics Rust by Example
      1. Functions
      2. Implementation
  10. Writing Automated Tests
  11. Object Oriented Programming
  12. Adding dependancies
  13. Option Take
  14. RefCell
  15. mem
  16. Data Structure
    1. Linked List
    2. Binary search tree
    3. N-ary Sum tree
  17. Recipe
    1. Semi colon
    2. Calling rust from python
    3. Default
    4. Crytocurrency With rust
    5. Function chaining
    6. Question Mark Operator
    7. Tests with println
    8. lib and bin
    9. Append vector to hash map
    10. Random Number
    11. uuid4
    12. uwrap and option
  18. Blockchain with Rust
  19. Near Protocol
    1. Startup code
    2. Couter
    3. Status
    4. Avrit
  20. Actix-web

Variables and Mutability

By default variables are immutable.

Use mut to make it mutable.

fn main() {
    let mut x = 5;
    println!("The value of x is: {}", x);
    x = 6;
    println!("The value of x is: {}", x);

Differences Between Variables and Constants
First, you aren’t allowed to use mut with constants. Constants aren’t just immutable by default—they’re always immutable.

Here’s an example of a constant declaration where the constant’s name is MAX_POINTS and its value is set to 100,000

const MAX_POINTS: u32 = 100_000;

fn main() {
    let x = 5;

    let x = x + 1;

    let x = x * 2;

    println!("The value of x is: {}", x);

See that mut is not used.

This program first binds x to a value of 5. Then it shadows x by repeating let x =, taking the original value and adding 1 so the value of x is then 6

By using let, we can perform a few transformations on a value but have the variable be immutable after those transformations have been completed.
The other difference between mut and shadowing is that because we’re effectively creating a new variable when we use the let keyword again, we can change the type of the value but reuse the same name.

This construct is allowed
fn main() {
    let spaces = "   "//String type
    let spaces = spaces.len(); // Number type

Shadowing thus spares us from having to come up with different names

let mut spaces = "   ";
spaces = spaces.len(); // Gives error