1. Guessing Game
  2. Common Programming Concepts
    1. Variables and Mutability
    2. Data Types
    3. Function
    4. Control Flow
  3. Understanding Ownership
    1. References and Borrowing
    2. The Slice Type
  4. Using Structs
    1. An Example Program Using Structs
    2. Method Syntax
  5. Enums and Pattern Matching
    1. The match Control Flow Operator
    2. Concise Control Flow with if let
  6. Managing Growing Projects with Packages, Crates, and Modules
    1. Defining Modules to Control Scope and Privacy
    2. Paths for Referring to an Item in the Module Tree
    3. Bringing Paths into Scope with the use Keyword
    4. Separating Modules into Different Files
  7. Common Collections
    1. Storing UTF-8 Encoded Text with Strings
    2. Storing Keys with Associated Values in Hash Maps
  8. Error Handling
    1. Unrecoverable Errors with panic!
    2. Recoverable Errors with Result
  9. Generic Types, Traits, and Lifetimes
    1. Traits: Defining Shared Behavior
    2. Generics Rust by Example
      1. Functions
      2. Implementation
  10. Writing Automated Tests
  11. Object Oriented Programming
  12. Adding dependancies
  13. Option Take
  14. RefCell
  15. mem
  16. Data Structure
    1. Linked List
    2. Binary search tree
    3. N-ary Sum tree
  17. Recipe
    1. Semi colon
    2. Calling rust from python
    3. Default
    4. Crytocurrency With rust
    5. Function chaining
    6. Question Mark Operator
    7. Tests with println
    8. lib and bin
    9. Append vector to hash map
    10. Random Number
    11. uuid4
    12. uwrap and option
  18. Blockchain with Rust
  19. Near Protocol
    1. Startup code
    2. Couter
    3. Status
    4. Avrit
  20. Actix-web



The same set of rules can be applied to functions: a type T becomes generic when preceded by <T>.

Using generic functions sometimes requires explicitly specifying type parameters. This may be the case if the function is called where the return type is generic, or if the compiler doesn't have enough information to infer the necessary type parameters.

A function call with explicitly specified type parameters looks like: fun::<A, B, ...>().

struct A;          // Concrete type `A`.
struct S(A);       // Concrete type `S`.
struct SGen<T>(T); // Generic type `SGen`.

// The following functions all take ownership of the variable passed into
// them and immediately go out of scope, freeing the variable.

// Define a function `reg_fn` that takes an argument `_s` of type `S`.
// This has no `<T>` so this is not a generic function.
fn reg_fn(_s: S) {}

// Define a function `gen_spec_t` that takes an argument `_s` of type `SGen<T>`.
// It has been explicitly given the type parameter `A`, but because `A` has not 
// been specified as a generic type parameter for `gen_spec_t`, it is not generic.
fn gen_spec_t(_s: SGen<A>) {}

// Define a function `gen_spec_i32` that takes an argument `_s` of type `SGen<i32>`.
// It has been explicitly given the type parameter `i32`, which is a specific type.
// Because `i32` is not a generic type, this function is also not generic.
fn gen_spec_i32(_s: SGen<i32>) {}

// Define a function `generic` that takes an argument `_s` of type `SGen<T>`.
// Because `SGen<T>` is preceded by `<T>`, this function is generic over `T`.
fn generic<T>(_s: SGen<T>) {}

fn main() {
    // Using the non-generic functions
    reg_fn(S(A));          // Concrete type.
    gen_spec_t(SGen(A));   // Implicitly specified type parameter `A`.
    gen_spec_i32(SGen(6)); // Implicitly specified type parameter `i32`.

    // Explicitly specified type parameter `char` to `generic()`.

    // Implicitly specified type parameter `char` to `generic()`.