Index

CryptoZombies

  1. Lesson 1: CryptoZombies
    1. Chapter 2 Contracts
    2. Chapter 3: State Variables & Integers
    3. Chapter 4: Math Operations
    4. Chapter 5: Structs
    5. Chapter 6: Arrays
    6. Chapter 7: Function Declarations
    7. Chapter 8: Working With Structs and Arrays
    8. Chapter 9: Private / Public Functions
    9. Chapter 10: More on Functions
    10. Chapter 11: Keccak256 and Typecasting
    11. Chapter 12: Putting It Together
    12. Chapter 13: Events
    13. Chapter 14: Web3.js
  2. Lesson 2: Zombies Attack Their Victims
    1. Chapter 2: Mappings and Addresses
    2. Chapter 3: Msg.sender
    3. Chapter 4: Require
    4. Chapter 5: Inheritance
    5. Chapter 6: Import
    6. Chapter 7: Storage vs Memory
    7. Chapter 8: Zombie DNA
    8. Chapter 9: More on Function Visibility
    9. Chapter 10: What Do Zombies Eat?
    10. Chapter 11: Using an Interface
    11. Chapter 12: Handling Multiple Return Values
    12. Chapter 13: Bonus: Kitty Genes
    13. Chapter 14: Wrapping It Up
  3. Lesson 3: Advanced Solidity Concepts
    1. Chapter 2: Ownable Contracts
    2. Chapter 3: onlyOwner Function Modifier
    3. Chapter 4: Gas
    4. Chapter 5: Time Units
    5. Chapter 6: Zombie Cooldowns
    6. Chapter 7: Public Functions & Security
    7. Chapter 8: More on Function Modifiers
    8. Chapter 9: Zombie Modifiers
    9. Chapter 10: Saving Gas With 'View' Functions
    10. Chapter 11: Storage is Expensive
    11. Chapter 12: For Loops
    12. Chapter 13: Wrapping It Up
  4. Lesson 4: Zombie Battle System
    1. Chapter 1: Payable
    2. Chapter 2: Withdraws
    3. Chapter 3: Zombie Battles
    4. Chapter 4: Random Numbers
    5. Chapter 5: Zombie Fightin'
    6. Chapter 6: Refactoring Common Logic
    7. Chapter 7: More Refactoring
    8. Chapter 8: Back to Attack!
    9. Chapter 9: Zombie Wins and Losses
    10. Chapter 10: Zombie Victory 😄
    11. Chapter 11: Zombie Loss 😞
  5. Lesson 5: ERC721 & Crypto-Collectibles
    1. Chapter 1: Tokens on Ethereum
    2. Chapter 2: ERC721 Standard, Multiple Inheritance
    3. Chapter 3: balanceOf & ownerOf
    4. Chapter 4: Refactoring
    5. Chapter 5: ERC721: Transfer Logic
    6. Chapter 6: ERC721: Transfer Cont'd
    7. Chapter 7: ERC721: Approve
    8. Chapter 8: ERC721: Approve
    9. Chapter 9: Preventing Overflows
    10. Chapter 10: SafeMath Part 2
    11. Chapter 11: SafeMath Part 3
    12. Chapter 12: SafeMath Part 4
    13. Chapter 13: Comments
    14. Chapter 14: Wrapping It Up
  6. App Front-ends & Web3.js
    1. Chapter 1: Intro to Web3.js
    2. Chapter 2: Web3 Providers
    3. Chapter 3: Talking to Contracts
    4. Chapter 4: Calling Contract Functions
    5. Chapter 5: Metamask & Accounts
    6. Chapter 6: Displaying our Zombie Army
    7. Chapter 7: Sending Transactions
    8. Chapter 8: Calling Payable Functions
    9. Chapter 9: Subscribing to Events
    10. Chapter 10: Wrapping It Up

Chapter 2: Ownable Contracts


Chapter 2: Ownable Contracts


Did you spot the security hole in the previous chapter?
setKittyContractAddress is external, so anyone can call it! That means anyone who called the function could change the address of the CryptoKitties contract, and break our app for all its users.
We do want the ability to update this address in our contract, but we don't want everyone to be able to update it.
To handle cases like this, one common practice that has emerged is to make contracts Ownable — meaning they have an owner (you) who has special privileges.

OpenZeppelin's

Ownable

contract


Below is the Ownable contract taken from the OpenZeppelin Solidity library. OpenZeppelin is a library of secure and community-vetted smart contracts that you can use in your own DApps. After this lesson, we highly recommend you check out their site to further your learning!
Give the contract below a read-through. You're going to see a few things we haven't learned yet, but don't worry, we'll talk about them afterward.
/**
 * @title Ownable
 * @dev The Ownable contract has an owner address, and provides basic authorization control
 * functions, this simplifies the implementation of "user permissions".
 */

contract Ownable {
  address private _owner;

  event OwnershipTransferred(
    address indexed previousOwner,
    address indexed newOwner
  );

  /**
   * @dev The Ownable constructor sets the original `owner` of the contract to the sender
   * account.
   */

  constructor() internal {
    _owner = msg.sender;
    emit OwnershipTransferred(address(0), _owner);
  }

  /**
   * @return the address of the owner.
   */

  function owner() public view returns(address) {
    return _owner;
  }

  /**
   * @dev Throws if called by any account other than the owner.
   */

  modifier onlyOwner() {
    require(isOwner());
    _;
  }

  /**
   * @return true if `msg.sender` is the owner of the contract.
   */

  function isOwner() public view returns(bool) {
    return msg.sender == _owner;
  }

  /**
   * @dev Allows the current owner to relinquish control of the contract.
   * @notice Renouncing to ownership will leave the contract without an owner.
   * It will not be possible to call the functions with the `onlyOwner`
   * modifier anymore.
   */

  function renounceOwnership() public onlyOwner {
    emit OwnershipTransferred(_owner, address(0));
    _owner = address(0);
  }

  /**
   * @dev Allows the current owner to transfer control of the contract to a newOwner.
   * @param newOwner The address to transfer ownership to.
   */

  function transferOwnership(address newOwner) public onlyOwner {
    _transferOwnership(newOwner);
  }

  /**
   * @dev Transfers control of the contract to a newOwner.
   * @param newOwner The address to transfer ownership to.
   */

  function _transferOwnership(address newOwner) internal {
    require(newOwner != address(0));
    emit OwnershipTransferred(_owner, newOwner);
    _owner = newOwner;
  }
}

A few new things here we haven't seen before:
• Constructors:
function Ownable() is a constructor, which is an optional special function that has the same name as the contract. It will get executed only one time, when the contract is first created.
• Function Modifiers:
modifier onlyOwner(). Modifiers are kind of half-functions that are used to modify other functions, usually to check some requirements prior to execution. In this case, onlyOwner can be used to limit access so only the owner of the contract can run this function. We'll talk more about function modifiers in the next chapter, and what that weird _; does.
indexed keyword: don't worry about this one, we don't need it yet.
So the
Ownable contract basically does the following:
1. When a contract is created, its constructor sets the
owner to msg.sender (the person who deployed it)

2. It adds an
onlyOwner modifier, which can restrict access to certain functions to only the owner

3. It allows you to transfer the contract to a new
owner

onlyOwner is such a common requirement for contracts that most Solidity DApps start with a copy/paste of this Ownable contract, and then their first contract inherits from it.
Since we want to limit
setKittyContractAddress to onlyOwner, we're going to do the same for our contract.

Put it to the test


We've gone ahead and copied the code of the
Ownable contract into a new file, ownable.sol. Let's go ahead and make ZombieFactory inherit from it.
1. Modify our code to
import the contents of ownable.sol. If you don't remember how to do this take a look at zombiefeeding.sol.

2. Modify the
ZombieFactory contract to inherit from Ownable. Again, you can take a look at zombiefeeding.sol if you don't remember how this is done.

Old code:
images/596-1.png


pragma solidity ^0.4.25;

// 1. Import here
import "./ownable.sol";

// 2. Inherit here:
contract ZombieFactory is Ownable {

    event NewZombie(uint zombieId, string name, uint dna);

    uint dnaDigits = 16;
    uint dnaModulus = 10 ** dnaDigits;

    struct Zombie {
        string name;
        uint dna;
    }

    Zombie[] public zombies;

    mapping (uint => address) public zombieToOwner;
    mapping (address => uint) ownerZombieCount;

    function _createZombie(string _name, uint _dna) internal {
        uint id = zombies.push(Zombie(_name, _dna)) - 1;
        zombieToOwner[id] = msg.sender;
        ownerZombieCount[msg.sender]++;
        emit NewZombie(id, _name, _dna);
    }

    function _generateRandomDna(string _str) private view returns (uint) {
        uint rand = uint(keccak256(abi.encodePacked(_str)));
        return rand % dnaModulus;
    }

    function createRandomZombie(string _name) public {
        require(ownerZombieCount[msg.sender] == 0);
        uint randDna = _generateRandomDna(_name);
        randDna = randDna - randDna % 100;
        _createZombie(_name, randDna);
    }

}